Revista de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias - UNR https://cienciasagronomicas.unr.edu.ar/journal/index.php/agronom <p><img style="margin-right: 15px;" src="/journal/public/site/images/admin/TapaImpresa.jpg" alt="Tapa Impresa" height="130" align="left"></p> <p>Ciencias Agronómicas es una publicación científica, editada por la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias de la Universidad Nacional de Rosario (República Argentina), de frecuencia bianual y que puede consultarse en su versión on-line y anteriormente también en versión impresa hasta el número 24(14) de diciembre de 2014.</p> <p>Incluye artículos y trabajos originales de investigación y experimentación, comunicaciones de investigaciones en curso, artículos especiales o de revisión sobre temas de interés, tesis y tesinas finalizadas o en curso, comprendiendo todas las temáticas vinculadas al ámbito agropecuario.</p> <p>El objetivo es difundir los resultados de los trabajos que se llevan a cabo en las distintas instituciones nacionales y extranjeras, poniendo el énfasis en el carácter multidisciplinario que caracteriza a las ciencias agrarias.</p> <p>Los artículos publicados por esta revista se incorporan a índices internacionales, bases de datos académicas, repositorios, buscadores y directorios, otorgando una mayor visibilidad y alcance de los mismos por su distribución global.</p> <p><a href="http://www.caicyt-conicet.gov.ar/nbr-revistas-integrantes-orden-alfabetico/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <img style="display: block; float: left; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" src="/files/site/indices/nucleo.jpg" alt="Nucleo Básico de Revistas"></a> <a href="http://www.scielo.org.ar/cgi-bin/wxis.exe/iah/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&amp;base=article%5Edlibrary&amp;format=iso.pft&amp;lang=e" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <img style="display: block; float: left; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" src="/files/site/indices/scielo.jpg" alt="Scielo"></a> <a href="http://dialnet.unirioja.es/documentos" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <img style="display: block; float: left; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" src="/files/site/indices/dialnet.jpg" alt="Dialnet"></a> <a href="http://rephip.unr.edu.ar" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <img style="display: block; float: left; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" src="/files/site/indices/rephip.jpg" alt="Repositorio Hipermedial UNR"></a> <a href="http://www.latindex.org/latindex/ficha?folio=23176" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <img style="display: block; float: left; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" src="/files/site/indices/latindex.jpg" alt="Latindex"></a> <a href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <img style="display: block; float: left; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" src="/files/site/indices/microsoft.jpg" alt=""></a> <a href="http://doaj.org/search" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <img style="display: block; float: left; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" src="/files/site/indices/doaj.jpg" alt="DOAJ"> </a> <a href="http://www.caicyt-conicet.gov.ar" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <img style="display: block; float: left; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" src="/files/site/indices/caicyt.jpg" alt="CAICYT"> </a> <a href="http://www.aapresid.org.ar/biblioteca/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <img style="display: block; float: left; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" src="/files/site/indices/aapresid.jpg" alt="AAPRESID"></a> <a href="http://scholar.google.es" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <img style="display: block; float: left; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" src="/files/site/indices/google.jpg" alt="Google Académico"></a> <a href="http://www.biblioteca.mincyt.gob.ar" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <img style="display: block; float: left; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" src="/files/site/indices/becyt.jpg" alt="Biblioteca Electrónica de Ciencia y Tecnología"></a> <a href="http://www.erevistas.csic.es" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <img style="display: block; float: left; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" src="/files/site/indices/e-revistas.jpg" alt="e-Revistas"></a> <a href="http://bdu.siu.edu.ar/cgi-bin/query.pl" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> <img style="display: block; float: left; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px;" src="/files/site/indices/bdu.jpg" alt="Repositorios Institucionales - SIU-BDU"></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias - UNR en-US Revista de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias - UNR 1853-4333 Influence of different production systems and fastening methods on yield and postharvest losses in spinach (spinacia oleracea L.) https://cienciasagronomicas.unr.edu.ar/journal/index.php/agronom/article/view/257 <p>Appropriate agronomic management may increase yield and maintain postharvest quality. This has been studied in detail in many horticultural crops but in others such as spinach the information available is limited. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of production systems, product fastening methods, harvest season and storage time on yield and postharvest losses of spinach produced in Zavalla, Santa Fe. Three factors were analyzed: 1) Production system: greenhouse, frost protection fleece fabric, shade cloth, and open field; 2) Fastening method: bunch and unfastened; 3) refrigerated (3ºC) storage time: 0, 3, 6 and 9 days. The variables measured were: yield (kg m<sup>-2</sup>); dry material (%); discarding (%), weight loss (%) and color (L *, a * and b *). For the evaluation of the systems a randomized block design with 3 replications was used. For postharvest, DCA was performed with 3 replications, applying a model of measures repeated in time (MIXED of SAS). In the winter, yields were higher in the greenhouse than in the field. In the autumn, dry matter was higher in field-grown plants than in those grown with frost protection fleece fabric and shade cloth . Water loss was lower in the protected systems in both seasons, especially in the first days of storage. Discard losses were lower in bunch, during the last days of storage, in autumn. In the autumn, bunches of spinach grown under greenhouse and frost protection fleece fabric presented higher values of L* (lighter), whereas bunches of field-grown spinach presented a higher value of a* (darker green). In the autumn, leaves of field-grown spinach were darker green, while those grown under frost protection fleece fabric, were yellowish. In the winter, plants from open field kept their green color during all storage days. Production systems have a differential influence on the productive variables and losses, in autumn and winter.</p> Copyright (c) 2018 Rosana Rotondo, Rodolfo Oscar Grasso, Muricio Pablo Ortiz Mackinson, María Cristina Mondino, Paula Andrea Calani, David Mario Balaban, Eduardo Alberto Vitta Larrieu, Patricia Susana Torres https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-10 2018-12-10 33 026 033 High and low volume sprayer technologies in sorghum stubble. Applicationefficiencyandenvironmentalrisks https://cienciasagronomicas.unr.edu.ar/journal/index.php/agronom/article/view/248 <p>The use of low application rates in systemic herbicides spraying is a usual practice in Argentina. Field trials were carried out with a self propelled boom sprayer in sorghum stubble with the aim of evaluatin the efficiency and environmental risks of glyphosate® application alternatives. Two spraying techniques were compared: High application rate (AV) with TT 11002 Teejet<sup>®</sup> nozzles and 70 l ha<sup>-1</sup>, and Low application rate (BV) with AD5 AC13 Albuz<sup>®</sup> hollow cone nozzles and 30 l ha<sup>- 1</sup>. Droplets density (DD), coverage (C), and Volume Median Diameter (VMD) were quantified by water sensitive cards and image processing software CIR 1,5<sup>®</sup> at three locations: between row crops (EL), near row crop (EI) and above sorghum cover residue (ES). Efficiency was calculated from droplets stains and corrected by chromatography determination of solution recovery on Petri dishes. Both techniques exceeded the recommended droplet density for herbicides, but AV was significantly higher. Coverage was 13.77% and 11.06% for AV in ES and EI, while in BV it only reached values of 3.46% and 2.36%, with significant differences between treatments. In EL there were no differences. Solution recovery rate was 51.56% in AV and 21% in BV over ES. BV had low efficiency values in DD, C and TR. Weeds control near sorghum row crop may be compromised by the low amount of glyphosate that reaches this location and increase environmental risk contamination.</p> Copyright (c) 2018 Matilde Mur, Mariano Julio Ponce, Facundo Guilino, Victor Hugo Merani, Roberto Hernan Balbuena https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-10 2018-12-10 33 034 042 Memories of agrarian territory. Diversity of family farming in the south of Santa Fe https://cienciasagronomicas.unr.edu.ar/journal/index.php/agronom/article/view/259 <p>A great number of territorial transformations have occurred in the South of the Santa Fe province during the last three decades. In the context of soybean productive specialization the standing out transformations are: disappearance of producers, decrease in the number of workers, and an increase of social conflictivity over environmental issues. The purpose of this research is to explore -within a local context of decreasing job availability- how the population can earn an income and who are creating production, commercialization and food consumption alternatives that reduce the risks caused by the generalized production model.</p><p>This article is a partial advance from a qualitative investigation, in an exploratory phase, with a methodology based on semi-structured in-depth interviews with family producers from the South of Santa Fe.</p><p>The changes in the technical-productive model and the network of agricultural-industrial relations involve other ways of addressing the rural. The spaces between the rural and urban worlds, between the local and the global are blurred and redefined, with the appearance of new scenarios and criteria which define the ways of production.</p><p>It is observed that family production persists, changes and reappears with different forms. Three groups of family producers with different material, social and cultural backgrounds were identified. From farmer, peasant or laborers’ traditions they pursue either typical or new strategies in a territory where inequality and deterioration of natural and social resources are deepening. The conflicts lead to the emergence of new producers and/or the progressive transformation of some traditional producers, diversifying the social field of local production.</p> Copyright (c) 2018 Roxana Albanesi, Patricia Propersi, Marina Espoturno, Milva Perozzi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-10 2018-12-10 33 012 019 Is there a relationship between firmness and dry matter content in blueberry fruits? https://cienciasagronomicas.unr.edu.ar/journal/index.php/agronom/article/view/253 <p>Harvest and postharvest quality of blueberry fruits (<em>Vaccinium</em> spp.) is a relevant factor for commercial success. The main indicators of harvest quality are fruit caliber, weight, firmness, and sanitary condition, and postharvest quality indicators are fruit firmness and sanitary condition. However, some blueberry wholesale and exporting companies use dry matter (DM) content of fruit as a postharvest quality indicator, due to its easy determination in fruit. Nevertheless, there are no scientific reports indicating that DM is a strong quality indicator. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation between firmness and DM content as fruit quality indicator for blueberry. Relation between fruit firmness and DM content was evaluated at the beginning of harvest period of four blueberry cultivars, belonging to Rabbiteye (‘Brightwell’ and ‘Ochlockonee’) and Highbush (‘Aurora’ and ‘Liberty’). The cultivars evaluated showed differences in fruit firmness (p &lt; 0.05), regardless of type (Rabbiteye or Highbush). These cultivars presented differences in fruit DM content (p &lt; 0.05), with higher values in Rabbiteye. No relation was determined between firmness and DM content in blueberry fruit. Consequently, fruit DM content is not a strong attribute to be used as indicator of blueberry postharvest quality<strong><em>.</em></strong></p> Copyright (c) 2018 Juan Hirzel https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-10 2018-12-10 33 020 025 Competitiveness of soybean exports in Paraguay https://cienciasagronomicas.unr.edu.ar/journal/index.php/agronom/article/view/255 <p>The objective of this research was to analyze the competitiveness of soybean exports in Paraguay in the period 2005 to 2014. The method of analysis used to measure competitiveness was the Constant Market Share model with data from the <em>UN Comtrade</em> database. The model decomposes growth into three effects: global growth, competitiveness and export destination; The target destinations chosen were Argentina, European Union and Uruguay. The results show that an increase in the demand of an emerging country, such as China, leads to an increase in global demand, in turn leading to higher exports from producing countries such as the USA, Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. Results of the CMS for Paraguay showed variable incidences for its growth: in the first period, it resulted from global growth and the destination of exports, whereas in the second period, it resulted from global growth and competitiveness.</p> Copyright (c) 2018 Nelson David Lesmo Duarte, Cristian Reinaldo Lesmo Duarte, Jaqueline Severino da Costa, Gustavo Daniel Vega Britez, José Augusto Velázquez Duarte, Marcos Arturo Ferreira Aguero https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-10 2018-12-10 33 007 011 V Ciclo de Seminarios sobre avances en la caracterización genética y molecular de la Apomixis https://cienciasagronomicas.unr.edu.ar/journal/index.php/agronom/article/view/272 <p>Durante el periodo comprendido entre el 14 y el 16 de Noviembre de 2016 se realizó el V Ciclo de Seminarios sobre Avances en la Caracterización Genética y Molecular de la Apomixis, organizado por el Departamento de Agronomía de la Universidad Nacional del Sur y el CERZOS-CONICET, Bahía Blanca. Esta reunión tuvo como objetivo continuar con el ciclo de encuentros bienales que, desde el año 2008, se realizan alternativamente en el Departamento de Agronomía de la Universidad Nacional de Sur o en la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias de la Universidad Nacional de Rosario. El evento está enfocado en discutir los resultados de los grupos argentinos que investigan el fenómeno de apomixis (reproducción asexual vía semillas), de manera que sus integrantes adquieran una visión global del tema bajo estudio y tengan la oportunidad de desarrollar cooperaciones. Estos encuentros constituyen una excelente oportunidad para la formación de los estudiantes de doctorado que trabajan en la temática. A ellos asisten profesores extranjeros, quienes amplían el contexto desde el cual se analizan los datos al aportar los resultados de sus propias investigaciones. Asimismo, sus visitas crean oportunidades para establecer o fortalecer colaboraciones internacionales.</p><p>La apomixis es una forma de reproducción muy particular, que involucra la formación de semillas en ausencia de meiosis y fecundación. Estas semillas contienen embriones clonales, genéticamente idénticos a la planta madre. Se considera que el carácter surgió repetidas veces durante la evolución, como consecuencia de alteraciones de los patrones clásicos de la reproducción sexual por causas genéticas y epigenéticas. La apomixis tiene la propiedad de fijar las estructuras genéticas heterocigotas de los genotipos híbridos por un número indefinido de generaciones, por lo que puede ser utilizada de manera programada en los planes de mejoramiento vegetal, acelerándolos y reduciendo su costo de manera dramática. Varias especies forrajeras apomícticas naturales de los géneros <em>Brachiaria</em> y <em>Paspalum</em> están siendo mejoradas en planes que utilizan esta capacidad de reproducción clonal vía semillas. El desarrollo de estos programas está posibilitando una mejora significativa en la capacidad de producción de forrajes para las áreas subtropicales de Sudamérica. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los grandes cultivos se reproducen por sexualidad y carecen de parientes apomícticos reproductivamente compatibles. Para ampliar el objetivo de asistir al mejoramiento a esos cultivos mayores se requiere un conocimiento exhaustivo de las bases moleculares que controlan el fenómeno. En los últimos años se han producido grandes avances en este sentido, impulsados por los proyectos de secuenciación de ARN pequeños, transcriptomas, y genomas, que están revolucionando la capacidad de generación de herramientas biotecnológicas útiles.</p><p>A este V Ciclo de Seminarios sobre Avances en la Caracterización Genética y Molecular de la Apomixis asistieron investigadores y becarios de las Universidades Nacionales del Sur y de Rosario. Los profesores extranjeros invitados fueron el Dr. Olivier Leblanc, del Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Montpellier, Francia; el Dr. Emidio Albertini de Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Perugia, Italia; y el Dr. John Carman, del Plants, Soils and Climate Department, Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA. Se presentaron un total de 15 trabajos, cuyos resúmenes se publican a continuación.</p> Copyright (c) 2018 I Garbus, S Micheletto, M Pellino, JM Rodrigo, JR Romero, JPA Selva, TF Sharbel, D Zappacosta https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-10 2018-12-10 33 043 058 Risk in the agricultural economy https://cienciasagronomicas.unr.edu.ar/journal/index.php/agronom/article/view/234 A territory is an area where agents interact shaping society, nature and the environment, the last being shaped not only in its natural or geographical features, but <br />also by cultural elements. Thus, the information surrounding each agent also shapes the development of the territory.<br />Several studies published in national and international journals analyzing agricultural decisions at the socioeconomic and climatic levels show heterogeneity in the<br />variables analyzed, depending on the type of approach. The variables range from broad considerations regarding family composition, successions, and strategies to the extreme of comparing individual decisions (from neoclassical economy) under stable preferences over time as would be the case of the expected utility theory. The aim of this article is to describe the evolution of the analysis of economic risk as defined by neoclassical economics in order to expand it and make contributions from the psychological field. For this purpose, we reviewed scientific publications referring to the Argentinian economic, socioeconomic and agricultural areas, published in national congress papers and journals, as well as articles on economics, psychology, risk and decision making published in international journals. Copyright (c) 2018 Sebastian Leavy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-05-14 2018-05-14 33 044 056 Emergence, characteristics and role of private technicians in the horticultural agglomerate of la plata (Buenos Aires). https://cienciasagronomicas.unr.edu.ar/journal/index.php/agronom/article/view/249 <p><em>The objective of this work is to characterize the influence and role of a service provider available in La Plata´s horticultural area: the private technician. It seeks to identify the beginnings, their evolution and current importance and dependence. It also aims to describe the characteristics of the adviser and advice provided and the interrelationship with producers, horticultural inputs trade and seed and agrochemical companies. Finally, we try to analyze the role of the private technician in what is called the economic agglomerate that makes up the horticulture of La Plata. To this end, a series of in-depth interviews were carried out with key actors (private technicians, public sector, horticultural inputs trade and distributors, as well as producers, among others) together with a literature review on the technological model in La Plata and its existing "greenhouse syndrome". It is concluded that the private technicians are another case of external economy, cause and consequence of the increase of the competitiveness that is generated in this productive space, contributing to the conformation of an economic agglomerate in the horticulture of La Plata.</em></p> Copyright (c) 2018 Matías García https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-05-14 2018-05-14 33 034 043 Conyza sumatrensis and Conyza bonariensis sensitivity to glyphosate in different growth stages https://cienciasagronomicas.unr.edu.ar/journal/index.php/agronom/article/view/238 Conyza sumatrensis and Conyza bonariensis are two of the most problematic weeds in Argentina. In the southeast of Buenos Aires there is no information regarding the sensitivity of Conyza species to glyphosate. The objectives of this work were: a) to determine differences in sensitivity of C. bonariensis and C. sumatrensis to glyphosate, b) to evaluate the effect of the growth stage of C. bonariensis and C. sumatrensis plants on glyphosate efficacy, and c) to determine the median lethal glyphosate dose for both species. An experiment was conducted with plants at the rosette and stem elongation stages. Increasing doses of glyphosate (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 L ha<sup>-1</sup> of formulated product corresponding to 0, 180, 360, 720, 1080, 2880 y 4320 g acid equivalent ha<sup>-1</sup>) (CREDIT 48% salt; 36g acid equivalent) were applied at each stage. Control was assessed visually, and aboveground biomass was determined. Dose-response curves were adjusted using the log-logistic and linear plateau models and the<br />glyphosate dose required for 50% weed control (EC<sub>50</sub>) was calculated. C. sumatrensis was less sensitive to glyphosate than C. bonariensis. Later growth stages required a higher dose of glyphosate to achieve the same level of control. The EC<sub>50</sub> values were 1.37 and 1.12 L ha<sup>-1</sup> for C. sumatrensis and C. bonariensis respectively, in rosette stage, while in the stem elongation stage both species had high EC<sub>50</sub> values (8.04 and 2.44 L ha<sup>-1</sup> , respectively). Copyright (c) 2018 Valeria Gianelli, Nicolas Scaramuzza, Francisco Bedmar, Patricia Diez de Ulzurrun https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-05-14 2018-05-14 33 025 033 Statistical relationship between corn yield and water deficiency occurrence in the Department of Rosario https://cienciasagronomicas.unr.edu.ar/journal/index.php/agronom/article/view/237 Environmental conditions such as temperature, sunlight, and water are determining factors in crop growth, development and yield. Available water is generally the main limiting factor in maize growth and yield under extensive productive conditions. The degree of maize sensitivity to water stress depends on the time the stress occurs. It is very sensitive to water stress situations during flowering, which extends for 30 days. Water stress during vegetative stages affects leaf expansion by reducing leaf area index and incident radiation interception. From the agronomic and economic points of view, it is very important to analyze the impact of severe water deficiencies (SWD) associated with droughts on a regionally widespread crop as maize. Maize yield data were collected from the Department of Rosario and weather information was obtained from the Zavalla meteorological station (33o01 ́S, 60o53 ́W). Multiple linear regression and cluster analysis techniques were used with the aim of determining the critical period (CP) in maize. Two maize CPs were determined according to their impact on yield; one between the second ten days of December fortnight and the 1st ten days of January<br />(flowering and start of grain filling), and the other in the second ten days of November (vegetative stage). When SWDs occur, yields could decrease by 56%. Copyright (c) 2018 María José Dickie https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-05-14 2018-05-14 33 017 024 Inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi and application of salicylic acid increase copper tolerance in pepper plants https://cienciasagronomicas.unr.edu.ar/journal/index.php/agronom/article/view/229 Heavy metals can accumulate in the soil and affect plant growth due to anthropic or natural factors. The symbiotic relationship between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plants has been shown to improve plant tolerance to different stress situations, such as heavy metal toxicity, thus constituting a potential tool for the management of plants grown under these conditions. It has also been reported that salicylic acid (SA), a plant growth regulator, increases stress tolerance in crops. The effect of SA was studied on copper stressed pepper plants without mycorrhizae and mycorrhizae with Funneliformis mosseae. The concentrations of copper evaluated were 0; 0.1; and 1 mM (SO<sub>4</sub>Cu.5H<sub>2</sub>O) in plants sprayed with 0; 200 and 500 μM SA. We determined mycorrhization %, viability %, height, dry weight, leaf area, green index, malonildialdehyde content and leaf and root proteins. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Growth parameters decreased with increasing Cu concentration, and better results were obtained in inoculated than in non-inoculated plants.<br />Mycorrhizal plants had lower concentrations of malonildialdehyde than non-mycorrhizal plants, both in leaves and roots. Protein content was higher in inoculated plants than in non-inoculated plants and decreased in the presence of copper stress, in both leaves and roots. SA showed variable responses according to the parameter analyzed, with a higher response in morphological parameters. Copyright (c) 2018 Marcela Fabiana Ruscitti https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-05-14 2018-05-14 33 007 016 Rural peri-urban land use planning: dangerousness of local winds for spray drift https://cienciasagronomicas.unr.edu.ar/journal/index.php/agronom/article/view/240 <p>Monitoring local wind characteristics contributes to quantify the degree of agricultural chemicals drift exposure in sensitive areas. This paper establishes relationships between wind direction and speed in order to evaluate the risk of human activities in the peri-urban area of Zavalla city. Data obtained from records of local meteorological stations were analyzed through descriptive statistics. Cumulative frequencies of N, E and S wind directions exceeded 70% for most of the year. Wind speed was higher than 10 km.h<sup>-1 </sup>in 36% of the observations, lower than 10 km.h<sup>-1</sup> in 59% of the observations, and calm in 5% of the observations. The categories of monthly dangerousness, determined by the combination of frequency deciles, indicated that the N and E peri-urban quadrants presented the highest exposure, with deciles between III and V for wind direction, and deciles between 2 and 7 for wind intensity. The S and W peri-urban quadrants presented lower exposure, with deciles between I and III for wind direction, and deciles between 1 and 4 for wind intensity. Critical areas were determined using the toxicological class of phytosanitary products. Part of the results showed that the situation of highest risk occurred from November to February at the North peri-urban area. In this case, products presented a degree of toxicity II and the wind dangerousness index was V6 for December and V5 for January. The characterization of wind direction and speed in relation with different land uses provides tools for decision-makers.</p>. Copyright (c) 2017 Marta Beatriz Costanzo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2017-12-22 2017-12-22 33 037 045 Effect of vinasse application on soils under sugarcane crop https://cienciasagronomicas.unr.edu.ar/journal/index.php/agronom/article/view/232 The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of vinasse in two soils representative of the sugarcane production area in Uruguay. Vinasse is a liquid residue generated during ethanol production and its use as a bio-fertilizer would allow reducing fertilization costs and avoiding environmental contamination risks. Incubations were performed by adding vinasse rates equivalent to 150, 300 y 450 m<sup>3</sup>ha<sup>-1</sup> to soil obtained from the A horizon of two different soil types: Vertic Argiudoll (LB2) and, Typic Argiudoll (L1), under controlled conditions. Soils were sampled at 4, 14, 28 and 90 days, and the following analyses were performed: Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, available P, mineral N (NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>-N and N-NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>-N), and exchangeable bases (Ca, Mg, K and Na). EC increased quickly in both soils, although only the highest rate reached values potentially negative for plant growth. There were no effects on soil pH. At 14 days, the ammonium form of N dominated in both soils, but at 28 days most of it had been nitrified in the heavy-textured soil (LB2), but not in L1, indicating different effects of vinasse on the activity of microbial biomass in both soils. Vinasse increased available P content and exchangeable Ca, though slightly. The most important effects of vinasse application were on exchangeable K and Mg. It was concluded that the vinasse evaluated is suitable to make an important nutrient contribution in the short term. Copyright (c) 2017 Amabelia del Pino Machado, Omar Casanova, Jorge Hernández, Virginia Takata, Germán Panissa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2017-12-22 2017-12-22 33 030 036 Residual effects of Imazamox on winter and summer crops in Argentina https://cienciasagronomicas.unr.edu.ar/journal/index.php/agronom/article/view/227 Imazamox, an herbicide belonging to the Imidazolinone chemical group, is registered in Argentina for soybean and for Clearfield (CL) wheat and sunflower. Due to its soil residual activity, it is important to study its phytotoxic persistence on sensitive crops. For this reason, the objective of this work was to determine the residual effects of two doses of Imazamox on winter and summer crops in Balcarce, in the southeast of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Treatments consisted in the application of Imazamox to CL sunflower at 50 and 100 g of active ingredient/ha, and a control. After harvesting, soil samples were taken at monthly intervals (104, 138, 168, 207, 235, 266 and 298 days from application). At the end of sampling, a bioassay was carried out in a growth chamber with wheat, rape, sunflower and maize not tolerant to Imidazolinones. Field experiments were conducted with non-CL maize and sunflower and with two varieties of potato (Kennebec and Innovator) sown on the plots previously treated with Imazamox. The bioassay determined that length of persistence periods was as follows: rape &gt; wheat = sunflower = maize. None of the field crops showed negative effects at the Imazamox doses applied, indicating that there was no residual effect. Copyright (c) 2017 Natalia Cassino, Francisco Bedmar, Gloria Monterubbianesi, Valeria Gianelli https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2017-12-22 2017-12-22 33 023 029 Farmers’ memories on the spread of agricultural cooperatives in southern Santa Fe (1945-1956) https://cienciasagronomicas.unr.edu.ar/journal/index.php/agronom/article/view/236 <p>The period from 1946 to 1955, during the first and second Juan Domingo Perón, administrations, was a time in which the agricultural cooperative movement reached its highest degree of institutionalization in the Pampas region. Cooperative associations transformed the commercialization of grains, allowing farmers to avoid middlemen and intermediaries. At the same time, the life of farmers and their families changed, too. Cooperatives became meeting places for peer groups, helping to build a collective “us” and a sense of belonging.</p><p>Cooperatives were located in the urban area of small agrarian towns, becoming a link between the urban and rural worlds. They supported economic and social development in those communities and encouraged the establishment of new cooperatives.</p><p>This paper is a summary of the doctoral thesis “Farmers’ memories on the spread of agricultural cooperatives in southern santa Fe (1945-1956)”. Using the Oral history theoretical-methodological approach we gather the memories of farmers and their families since the beginings of the cooperative movement in the south of the province of Santa Fe. We also show how the interviewees, from their personal opinions or views of their own past, construct a narrative explaining the historical context of that period and its influence on the organization of cooperatives.</p><p> </p> Copyright (c) 2017 Evangelina Tifni https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2017-12-22 2017-12-22 33 015 022